Archives par mot-clé : Monument

La basilique du Sacré-Coeur.


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La basilique du Sacré-Coeur de Montmartre est dite du « Vœu principal ». Elle fut entièrement financé par des deniers privés. Située au sommet de la butte Montmartre à 129 mètres au-dessus du niveau de la mer et surplombant la ville de Paris la basilique fut donc payé par les catholiques qui voulurent remercier Dieu d’avoir préservé Paris de la commune en 1871. Une souscription donnait le droit à un morceau de pierre de la basilique. Près de quarante-six millions de francs seront récoltés en un demi-siècle par les dons de près de dix millions de fidèles. Les noms de ces fidèles donateurs se retrouveront gravés dans les  blocs de pierre qui serviront à la construction de la basilique du Sacré-coeur.  Le 23 juillet 1873 les députés à l’Assemblée nationale déclare le projet d’utilité publique par 393 voix contre 164. L’architecte est Paul Abadie; le plan de l’église, de style romano-byzantin, est inspiré de l’église Saint-Front, de Périgueux. La première pierre a été posée le 16 juin 1875 et la basilique du Sacré-Coeur fut inauguré en 1885.

La basilique du Sacré-Coeur de Montmartre.
Entrée de la basilique du Sacré-Coeur.

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La Tour Eiffel se dresse.


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Le 31 mars 1889, le président Sadi-Carnot inaugure la tour Eiffel. Eiffel, très ému, hisse un immense drapeau tricolore au sommet de la tour tandis que 21 coups de canon retentissent dans le ciel de Paris. Un mois après l’Exposition Universelle débute. Tous les grands de ce monde font le voyage, de l’archiduc Charles Ferdinand d’Autriche à Thomas Edison en passant par Buffalo Bill, le célèbre héros du Far West. Mais la tour ne sera accessible au public que le 15 mai 1889, neuf jours après le début de l’exposition universelle; jour ou les premiers visiteurs, d’un pas curieux, excité, pourront monter, voir, toucher, sentir l’immensité de la géante de fer. La tour domine alors de ses 313,2 mètres l’exposition universelle et celle-ci ne cessera de grandir. 122 ans plus tard la « Dame de fer » mesure 327 mètres. La « Dame de fer » et ses 18038 poutrelles métalliques et ses 2500000 rivets est construite par 132 ouvriers en seulement deux ans, deux mois et cinq jours (1887 – 1889) sous l’égide de l’ingénieur Alexandre Gustave Eiffel.  Son poids est de 10100 tonnes et la tour compte 1710 marches (1655 maintenant). A l’origine de ce projet titanesque, deux ingénieurs des ateliers de l’Ingénieur Gustave Eiffel : Koechlin & Nouguier. Le projet remporte le concours de l’Exposition universelle et Gustave Eiffel se charge de financer le chantier. La notoriété de l’entreprise Eiffel, en matière de constructions métalliques, était indiscutable à l’époque. Mais la tour Eiffel ne reçut pas que des éloges et la tour est vivement critiquée. « Elle s’écroulera au premier coup de vent » pronostiquent certains. « Le squelette creux » de Guy de Maupassant aurait du être démantelée vingt ans plus tard.

La tour Eiffel en 1900 a l'Exposition Universelle.
Carte postale de la Tour Eiffel en 1900 à l'Exposition Universelle avec à ses pieds le Globe Céleste.

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